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Great saphenous vein reflux symptoms

Great saphenous vein transitory reflux in patients with symptoms related to chronic venous disorders, but without visible signs (C0s), and its correction with MPFF treatment Yu. T. Tsoukanov, A. Yu. Tsoukanov, A. Nikolaychuk Department of Surgical Diseases, Omsk State Medical Academy, Omsk, Russia Abstract Aim: the study was aimed at investigating the frequently encountered clinical group of. CVI causes several symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Pain often accompanies the symptoms of venous reflux. Sometimes legs can feel itchy, sore, or heavy. In severe cases, you may develop a venous ulcer (a wound by your ankles The high-pressure build-up in the leg veins also leads to many abnormal symptoms in the legs, including aching, swelling, burning, heaviness, cramping, fatigue, itching, etc. If allowed to progress for too many years, these abnormal saphenous veins can cause serious circulation problems in the legs Of the 25 million Americans with venous insufficiency, approximately 7 million exhibit serious symptoms such as edema, skin changes and venous ulcers. It is estimated that in America, 72 percent of women and 42 percent of men will experience varicose veins by the time they are in their 60s. Prevalence is highly correlated to age and gender. What are the signs/symptoms that the great saphenous vein has reopened after an EVLT procedure? - I had EVLT done on my great saphenous vein (GSV) about 2-1/2 months ago. At my one month scan, the GSV was stilled closed effectively with no blood clots. About a week ago, I did some gardening while sitting on a low stool and bending forward. I also played tennis for the first time since the.

Alternatively, superficial vein reflux (also referred to as saphenous vein reflux), can cause varicose veins, spider veins (telangiectasias), and small reddish veins (reticular veins). This type of vein reflux tends to occur as you grow older Venous reflux disease (VRD), also better known as chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), occurs when veins fail to return blood to the heart properly. The condition most commonly affects the legs. It.. In doing so, it can either stretch the main smaller veins coming off the great saphenous vein resulting in varicosities (varicose veins) or it can cause inflammation or damage to the thousands of tiny capillaries. Symptoms of the latter include swelling, tenderness, or tiredness in the limb area or visible red or brown patches around the ankle

The presented clinical scenario (increase in swelling and symptoms of aching/throbbing and no significant progression of skin damage) correlates more with new superficial venous disease as demonstrated by the lower extremity ultrasound Common symptoms of venous reflux disease include: Stasis dermatitis (a type of skin inflammation in people with poor venous circulation Abstract. Aim: To analyze the treatments for situational great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux. Methods: Patients with chronic venous disease who were classified as C 0s, C 0,1s, and C 2 (n=294) were analyzed using a day orthostatic load (DOL) test. Situational GSV reflux occurred in 78 patients. The patients classified as C 0s and C 0,1s (group 1; n=46) and the patients with reflux still present. Mild cases of Venous Reflux Disease are completely asymptomatic. However, if Venous Reflux Disease is severe then symptoms will include those seen when there is accumulation of blood in the lower extremities. There will also be severe pain experienced in the lower extremities including the legs, feet, and ankles

Venous reflux is responsible for many of the symptoms of chronic vascular insufficiency, including swelling (edema) in the legs and ankles, changes in skin color and texture around the legs and ankles, and varicose veins (thick bulging veins) Background: In endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), the great saphenous vein (GSV) is usually ablated from the knee to the groin, with no treatment of the below-knee segment regardless of its reflux status. However, persistent below-knee GSV reflux appears to be responsible for residual varicosities and symptoms of venous disease Duplex ultrasound assessment revealed reflux involving the right Great Saphenous Vein (GSV) from the Saphenofemoral Junction (SFJ) to the ankle. Peak vein diameter was 8.3mm. Reflux (4.4 seconds) was present in the right common femoral vein (CFV). The deep venous system was patent Venous insufficiency, also known medically as venous reflux disease, in the greater saphenous vein is a primary underlying cause of varicose veins. The great saphenous is also therefore the superficial vein most frequently treated with radiofrequency ablation to restore healthy circulation and eliminate varicose veins Symptomatic anterior accessory great saphenous vein (AAGSV) reflux. A 70 year-old female presents with symptomatic varicose veins on left leg for more than 10 years. She complains of heaviness, achiness and pain around the veins. Symptoms worsen at the end of the day, and while standing or sitting for long periods. Leg elevation and the use of.

Great saphenous vein transitory reflux in patients with

Think you have Venous Reflux? Know the Symptoms and Cause

This superficial venous reflux must be addressed, or recurrence of the varicosities can be expected. In many cases, the varicose veins causing symptoms in the distribution of either the greater or lesser saphenous vein (GSV/LSV) do not need to be excised if the incompetent saphenous vein has been successfully ablated. Current mi The natural aging process weakens the vein valves and walls, sometimes causing clots in the saphenous veins (smaller veins nearer the surface of your skin) that lead to superficial venous insufficiency. The Symptoms of Venous Reflux. The following venous reflux symptoms may indicate venous insufficiency: Edema - swelling of the ankles or leg How can vein reflux be treated? The primary goal in treating symptomatic venous reflux is to eliminate the reflux at its source, usually the great saphenous vein. If a diseased vein is either closed or removed, blood automatically re-routes into other veins without any negative consequences to the patient

Saphenous Vein Reflux Therapies Curing Varicose Veins

  1. When painful signs and symptoms occur, they may include: An achy or heavy feeling in your legs. Burning, throbbing, muscle cramping and swelling in your lower legs. Worsened pain after sitting or standing for a long time. Itching around one or more of your veins. Skin discoloration around a varicose vein
  2. The vein then ascends medially in the thigh to perforate the deep fascia and join the common femoral vein 3 to 4 cm (two fingerbreadths) inferior and lateral to the pubic tubercle. 5 The saphenous nerve lies anterior to the great saphenous vein in the calf 4 and may be injured by procedures extended into the calf
  3. e venous reflux and to measure the diameter of the great saphenous veins. They divided the GSV into four locations: saphenofemoral junction mid thigh lower thigh (LT) and below the.
  4. Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the flow of blood through the veins is blocked, causing blood to pool in the legs. It's often caused by blood clots. We'll describe the causes of.
  5. Reflux is defined as a and foam sclerotherapy are as effective as surgery for great saphenous vein varices.30 Prior What are the symptoms of varicose veins? Edinburgh vein study cross.
  6. ish varicose veins

What is Venous Insufficiency also known as Venous Reflux

cropped ultrasound exam veins on the leg, vein thrombosis

Ultrasound in the office showed extension of great saphenous venous thrombus into the common femoral vein. Treatment with Lovenox was started and continued on coumadin for 3 months. Follow up ultrasound in 3 months showed reflux in the great saphenous vein and resolution of the deep venous thrombosis Saphenous veins include the great and small saphenous and accessory saphenous veins that travel in parallel with the great or small saphenous veins. Tributaries are veins that empty into a larger vein. Treatment of venous reflux typically includes the following: 1. Identification by preoperative Doppler ultrasonography of the valvular. Summary Saphenous Reflux Observation Asymptomatic or stable disease C1-6 Anatomy of the reflux is considered Infirm or clinically content patient Alternative explanation for symptoms Low likelihood of benefit Saphenous Vein Ablation Symptomatic disease Extensive reflux Medical and lifestyle benefit. 27 superficial reflux of the great saphenous vein. Radiofrequency/laser ablation is covered for treatment of the small saphenous or great saphenous veins and selected tributaries to improve symptoms attributable to saphenous vein reflux. Treatment of perforator and tributary veins with Radiofrequency/laser ablation may. The great and small saphenous veins are the main superficial leg veins. When deep vein valves fail, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can occur. Venous reflux disease is progressive, symptoms can worsen over time if left untreated and can have a significant negative impact on your life. It can lead to serious health problems including.

Saphenous Vein Pain When Walking. The greater saphenous vein is a large vein in the front of your leg that stretches from your foot to your groin. Its purpose of the greater saphenous vein is to deliver blood that has been drained of oxygen through one-way valves to the deep femoral vein, which then moves the blood back to the heart b. Failure of symptoms to respond to conservative treatment for at least 3 months. Conservative treatment must include graded compression stockings. Analgesics, elevation, skin and wound care can also be used to treat symptoms if indicated. c. The presence of saphenous reflux ≥ 500 milliseconds in the vein to be treated documented b 37. Gibson K, Meissner M, Wright D. Great saphenous vein diameter does 28. Labropoulos N, Giannoukas AD, Delis K, Mansour MA, Kang SS, not correlate with worsening quality of life scores in patients with great Nicolaides AN, et al. Where does venous reflux start? J Vasc Surg saphenous vein incompetence Great Saphenous Vein. Ask if there's a history of GSV harvesting. The Great Saphenous Vein (GSV) is evaluated next for incompetence. This patient demonstrated severe venous reflux in the GSV from the groin to ankle. Great saphenous vein. Measure the diameter of the incompetent GSV areas in transverse Venous reflux most frequently occurs in the great saphenous vein (GSV), and less frequently in the other superficial veins. Elevated venous pressure may also be the result of abnormalities or blockage of the deep vein system. Risk Factors. There are a several risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing varicose and spider veins

What are the signs/symptoms that the great saphenous vein

  1. Chapter 4 Endovenous Thermal Ablation of Saphenous Reflux Jose I. Almeida Historical Background Treatment of this disorder has evolved from sclerotherapy to open radical surgery to the use of sophisticated technology such as laser, radiofrequency, or ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy. The exact historical point in time when saphenous vein incompetence was recognized as a source o
  2. there is no significant incompetence of the greater or lesser saphenous veins, AND, D. Symptoms correlate anatomically with the veins to be treated, AND E. There is demonstrated accessory saphenous reflux of at least 0.5 msec, or perforator v ein reflux of at least 0.35msec, by Doppler or duplex ultrasound scanning,AND F
  3. Varicose veins affect 15-40% of people. 1,2 The majority arise from the great saphenous vein (GSV) and saphenofemoral junction (SFJ). 3 Minimally invasive ablation such as endovenous laser treatment (EVLT) is an increasingly popular treatment for symptomatic SFJ reflux with or without GSV incompetence. 2,4 When compared with open varicose vein surgery, EVLT results in decreased pain, earlier.
  4. Saphenofemoral junction (SFJ) incompetence associated with great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux is the most common cause of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency. 1 The more extensive the anatomic extent of reflux, the higher the incidence of signs and symptoms
  5. The great saphenous vein and the saphenofemoral junction. The great saphenous vein (GSV) originates on the dorsum of the foot, anterior to the medial malleolus, and courses cephalad along the tibial border to the level of the knee. Clinical symptoms depend on the degree of reflux and venous obstruction:.
  6. swelling, itching, burning, or other symptoms associated with vein reflux, despite conservative therapy, severe enough to require daily pain medicines and causing inability to manage daily activities at home or at work . Concurrent treatment of the accessory saphenous veins along with the great or small saphenous veins may be considere

What Is Venous Reflux Disease? Symptoms and Treatmen

The Great Saphenous Vein

Venous reflux disease: Symptoms, treatment, and mor

Patient had recurrence of symptoms and reflux after both procedures and sought definitive treatment (Figure 1). • Previous national figure ice skater who spends considerable time on feet as a skating coach, which aggravates venous symptoms. • Duplex ultrasound of right Great Saphenous Vein (GSV) 7mm at Saphenofemora with great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux is the most common cause of varicose veins and chronic venous insufficiency.1 The more extensive the anatomic extent of reflux, the higher the incidence of signs and symptoms. It has been reported that reflux confined to the below‑knee segment of the GSV is associated with a highe Reflux in the below-knee great saphenous vein can be safely treated with endovenous ablation Shaun M. Gifford, Manju Kalra, Peter Gloviczki, Audra A. Duncan, Gustavo S. Oderich, Mark D. Fleming, Scott Harmsen, Thomas C. Bowe another facility. Her symptoms included leg fatigue, heaviness and ankle swelling. • Upon completion of venous Doppler reflux ultrasound, multiple large caliber saphenous tributary varicose veins and remnants of the previously treated Great Saphenous Vein (GSV) were demonstrated at proximal thigh Objective: To report the patterns of reflux in the great saphenous vein as well as to investigate the correlations between patterns of reflux, the demographics and the clinical findings in the population studied. Methods: A total of 1882 limbs were assessed by duplex ultrasound examination in 1449 patients (348 men and 1101 women). Ages ranged from 21 to 94 years (mean 51.8)

Reflux Management | Thoracic Key

Saphenous Vein Problems - What Are They And Why Do They

  1. symptoms of Big varicosities that are symptomatic or a history of Venous REFLUX • Dilatation of vein wall leads to valve insufficiency • Monocytes may destroy vein Great Saphenous Insufficiency • Skin changes are seen along the medial aspect of the ankl
  2. Saphenous veins include the great and small saphenous and accessory saphenous veins that travel in parallel with the great or small saphenous veins. Tributaries are veins that empty into a larger vein. Treatment of venous reflux has traditionally included the following: Identification by preoperative Doppler ultrasonography of the valvular.
  3. Great Saphenous Vein 30. Great Saphenous Vein 31. Great Saphenous Vein 32. Great Saphenous Vein 33. Great Saphenous Vein 34. GSV Tortuosity 35. GSV Tortuosity 36. GSV Stenosis 37. Duplex Assessment 38. GSV Position - Close to Dermis 39. Great Saphenous Vein 40. 57M, Denies Symptoms 41. TSA Search and Refe

Recurrent Venous Disease Following Great Saphenous Vein

  1. Example of a segmental reflux without valvular incompetence. (1) Normally directed flow from a tributary into the great saphenous vein (GSV). (2) Reversed flow (reflux) in a segment of the GSV. (3) Normally directed flow from the GSV via a competent thigh perforating vein into the femoral vein (FV). Note that all valves are competen
  2. Venous insufficiency most commonly results from reflux originating from the great saphenous vein (GSV). Other sources of venous insufficiency include superficial veins, such as the small saphenous vein (SSV), the anterior thigh circumflex vein, the posterior thigh circumflex vein, and the anterior accessory GSV
  3. Valvular incompetence at the saphenofemoral junction with great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux can result in chronic venous stasis disease. Significant clinical symptoms can result from chronic reflux disease, including chronic pain, edema, ulceration, and thrombophlebitis
  4. Mean great saphenous vein diameter was 6.91+ 0.579 in the study group. Conclusion: we conclude that occupations involving prolonged periods of standing are the major contributing factors for prevalence of varicose veins. Also, increasing diameter of great saphenous vein is directly related to development of reflux and varicosity
  5. Clinical Significance of Ostial Great Saphenous Vein Reflux. IntroductionAssessment of greater saphenous vein (GSV) insufficiency is an important component of the management of patients with varicose vein disease. 1 The surgical approach to GSV incompetence has been changed over the years and there has been a number of recent publications.

Venous Reflux in the Legs - The Ultimate Vein Guid

Type III of superficial saphenous vein aneurysms was an occurrence of types I and II in the same lower extremity (7%). Superficial venous aneurysms of the short saphenous system are classified as type IV (6%). According to this author, superficial venous aneurysms are found in association with saphenous vein reflux in both men and women 5) To investigate the relationship among great saphenous vein (GSV) anatomic type, segmental aplasia, and reflux. Methods. Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) was performed on 475 legs of 277 consecutive patients with venous symptoms between November 2015 and August 2016. Exclusion criteria were previous venous surgery and venous thrombosis Only a few investigate differences of a specific treatment option between the great (GSV) and the small saphenous vein (SSV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, clinical improvement and patient satisfaction after radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy (RFITT®) with regard to the treated vein junctional reflux of the greater saphenous vein, lesser saphenous vein following initial endovenous ablation therapy. (In order to authorize additional endovenous ablation, there should be documentation that the member continues to have symptoms and ultrasound showing persistent junctional reflux. great saphenous vein of the thigh in patients with superficial vein reflux. FDA product code: GEX. • In 2005, a modified Erbe Erbokryo® cryosurgical unit (Erbe USA) was approved by FDA for marketing. A variety of clinical indications are listed, including cryostripping of varicose veins of the lower limbs. FDA product code: GEH

Diagnosis and treatment of situational great saphenous

  1. ating the saphenous vein. We present 2 cases in which venous reflux was eli
  2. Endovenous catheter ablation and surgical ligation/stripping are indicated for treatment of the same general population: patients in whom the great and/or small saphenous veins have reflux or incompetence of 0.5 seconds or longer demonstrated on duplex scanning, and varicose vein symptoms significantly impinge on quality of life (MSAC, 2011)
  3. ed which part of the GSV is the most sensitive and dilated in association with venous reflux
  4. or other symptoms associated with vein reflux severe enough to require daily pain medicines and causing an inability to complete activities of daily living. Concurrent treatment of the accessory saphenous veins along with the great or small saphenous veins may be considered medically necessary when criteria are met for each vein and there i
  5. ated (at least 3 months); AND There is demonstrated accessory saphenous reflux; AND The varicosities are at least 3 millimeters in size AND There is documentation of one or more of the following indications: 1
  6. Introduction Endovenous ablations are the new standard procedures for treatment of great saphenous vein reflux including endovenous laser ablation (EVLA), radio frequency ablation (RFA), endovenous steam ablation (EVSA), mechanochemical ablation (MOCA), cyanoacrylate injection and ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS). EVLA and RFA have demonstrated similar anatomical success for short.
  7. imally invasive treatments for great saphenous vein incompetence. 26th January 2021. 3204. A large, prospective, single-centre, randomised trial from Spain comparing two open surgical techniques with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) to treat saphenous incompetence found RFA comparable to both invasive approaches in terms of.

Venous Reflux Disease Causes Symptoms Treatmen

Saphenous vein thrombosis and venous thromboembolism. Saphenous vein thrombosis and superficial vein thrombosis in general were widely regarded as benign conditions for decades. However, modern data suggests that saphenous vein thrombosis may actually co-exist at the time of diagnosis with deep vein thrombosis or even pulmonary embolism Venous reflux disease, also known as chronic venous disease, develops when the valves stop working properly and allow blood to flow backward (i.e., reflux) and pool in the lower leg veins. If venous reflux disease is left untreated, symptoms can worsen over time. As a result, vein valves will not close properly, leading to symptoms such as Venous reflux disease treatment aims to reduce or stop the backward flow of blood. Treating the diseased vein improves overall blood flow and relieves symptoms. For some patients, compression stockings alone may improve blood flow. For other patients, closing or removing the diseased vein may be necessary to improve blood flow

Endovascular obliteration of saphenous reflux: a multicenter study. J Vasc Surg 2002;35:1190-6. Weiss RA, et al. Controlled Radiofrequency Endovenous Occlusion Using a Unique Radiofrequency Catheter Under Duplex Guidance to Eliminate Saphenous Varicose Vein Reflux: A 2-Year Follow-up, Dermatologic Surgery, Jan 2002; 28:1: 38-42 Superficial venous insufficiency involving the great saphenous vein (GSV), small saphenous vein (SSV), and other nonaxial superficial veins is very amenable to treatment. The approach to treating patients with symptomatic chronic venous disease and duplex ultrasound confirmed superficial vein reflux is reviewed Figure 14.3 Ultrasound image of saphenous vein with reflux in the calf shown in B mode. Contraindications The clearest contraindication of axial vein ablation is the presence of normal venous flow and lack of reflux The Small Saphenous Vein (SSV) is a superficial vein of the posterior leg. It drains the leg's lateral surface and runs up the leg's posterior surface to drain into the popliteal vein. Previously called also lesser saphenous vein or short saphenous vein, the use of those terms has been discouraged and are no longer recommended for the purpose of standardizing terminology [1] endovenous ablation therapy as primary treatment of saphenous (axial/truncal) vein incompetence. The treatments to eliminate the saphenous vein reflux will be considered medically necessary if the patient remains symptomatic after a six-week trial of conservative therapy and has reflux in a saphenous vein

Although preliminary studies have been limited to moderate-sized great saphenous veins (GSVs), larger diameters of up to 20 mm have been included in certain studies . The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation of the saphenous vein diameter or reflux time (RT) with the stump length after CAC. Materials and method Hypothesis As the compliant greater saphenous vein (GSV) adjusts its luminal size to the level of transmural pressure, measurement of its diameter, reflecting the severity of hemodynamic compromise in limbs with GSV reflux, may simplify the hemodynamic criteria of patient selection for saphenectomy.. Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of GSV diameter determined in the thigh and. Treatment of recurrent varicose veins of the great saphenous vein by conventional surgery and endovenous laser ablation. J Vasc Surg 2009;50(5):1106-13. 10. Fischer R, Linde N, Duff C, Jeanneret C, Chandler JG, Seeber P. Late recurrent saphenofemoral junction reflux after ligation and stripping of the greater saphenous vein

Varicose Vein SymptomsVaricose Veins Symptoms & Treatment | UCSF Radiology

WHAT IS VENOUS REFLUX & IS IT DANGEROUS? - Las Vegas Vein

greater and lesser saphenous vein, superficial venous segments and perforators. These studies must demonstrate both of the following: • Absence of deep venous thrombosis • Documented incompetence (reflux>500msec) of the Valves of the Saphenous, Perforator or Deep venous systems consistent with the patient's symptoms and findings Vein ablation is also performed to treat saphenous reflux that has leg to leg complications such as blood clots, vein ulcers of the ankles / feet, or bleeding from the skin. Saphenous vein ablation can cure saphenous vein reflux and varicose veins. The ablation can also resolve all of the symptoms that occur in the legs, ankles, and feet The laser tip (arrow) is in the great saphenous vein (GSV) just beyond the superficial epigastric vein (SEV) termination. FV = femoral vein. FV = femoral vein. The advantages of this procedure lie in reducing the use of general anesthesia and the rates of bruising, bleeding, and nerve injury Patients with primary great saphenous varicose veins were assigned randomly to either UGFS or surgical stripping with high ligation. Recurrence, defined as reflux combined with venous symptoms, was determined on colour duplex scans at baseline, 3 months, 1 year and 2 years after initial treatment A systematic review and network meta-analysis of RCTs was performed to compare rates of incomplete stripping or non-occlusion of the great saphenous vein with or without reflux (anatomical failure) at early, mid- and long-term follow-up; and secondary outcomes (reintervention and clinical recurrence) among intervention groups

Persistent below-knee great saphenous vein reflux after

Varicose Vein Overview. More than 25 million Americans suffer from venous reflux disease. The symptoms can include pain and fatigue in the legs, swollen ankles and calves, burning or itching skin, skin discoloration and leg ulcers. using radiofrequency to heat and seal diseased great saphenous and perforator veins and address the. incompetence of the greater saphenous vein (GSV) and small saphenous vein (LSV OR SSV) may be considered if the following are met per lower extremity: 1. Ultrasound documented saphenous reflux with duration of 500 milliseconds or greater in the vein to be treated; and vein size is 4.5 mm or greater in diameter measured by ultrasoun INTRODUCTION. Endovenous ablation is a minimally invasive, highly effective treatment that can be performed in an office-based setting. Venous ablation is appropriate for patients with persistent symptoms or cosmetic concerns in the great, small, or anterior saphenous veins, collectively known as the axial veins, and with demonstrated venous reflux on duplex ultrasound examination Background: Venous reflux most frequently occurs in the great saphenous vein (GSV), which is the most commonly diseased vein and is associated with venous insufficiency and varicose veins. Objective: We aimed, in this study, to determine risk factors for saphenous vein insufficiency in female patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study

Significant Improvement of Reflux and Symptom

Proebstle TM, Möhler T. A longitudinal single-center cohort study on the prevalence and risk of accessory saphenous vein reflux after radiofrequency segmental thermal ablation of great saphenous veins. J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord. 2015 Jul;3(3):265-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jvsv.2014.10.001. Epub 2014 Dec 6 blood flowing to the heart. Venous reflux . disease develops when the valves stop working properly and allow blood to flow backward (i.e., reflux) and pool in the lower leg veins. If venous reflux disease is left untreated, symptoms can worsen over time. Your doctor can help you understand if you have this condition.1. Superficial venous reflux great saphenous vein (AAGSV): abolition of sapheno- femoral reflux with preservation of the great saphenous vein. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2009; 37(4):477-81. Klem TM, Schnater JM, Schutte PR et al. A randomized trial of cryo stripping versus conventional stripping of the great saphenous vein.JVasc Surg 2009; 49(2):403-9

Diagnosis and treatment of situational great saphenous
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