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Swallowing mechanism Diagram

the diagram of swallowing a liquid bolus. Normal swallowing of a liquid bolus: Drawings based on a videofluorographic recording. (A) The bolus is held between the anterior surface of the tongue and hard palate, in a swallow ready position (end of oral preparatory stage). The tongue presses against the palate both in front of and behind. The swallowing reflex is so co-ordinated that food passes only in one of these possible paths, namely into the oesophagus. Return in the mouth is prevented by the high pressure (even 100 cm of H 2 O) developed in this area (posterior half of oral cavity) due to forceful contraction of the tongue against hard and soft palates The structures involved with the process of swallowing include the tongue, teeth, epiglottis, and esophagus. The teeth are used to grind and chop up food int..

Swallowing is the mechanism by which food is transported from the mouth to the stomach. Part of the mechanism is under active control and the rest autonomic. This article shall consider the process of swallowing and some clinical conditions that may result from the process going wrong Swallowing or deglutition is a complex reflex mechanism by which food is pushed from the oral cavity into the esophagus and then pushed to the stomachthis movement of food from the oral cavity on to the esophagus and stomach by pushing is called propulsion and it is an important part of the digestive process. Swallowing refers to the entire act. The Pharyngeal Phase . As the food bolus reaches the pharynx, special sensory nerves activate the involuntary phase of swallowing. The swallowing reflex, which is mediated by the swallowing center in the medulla (the lower part of the brainstem), causes the food to be further pushed back into the pharynx and the esophagus (food pipe) by rhythmic and involuntary contractions of several muscles. In some cases, we will require a referral from your primary care physician. We would be happy to discuss this with you to ensure we have all we need to expedite the scheduling process. Please contact us by phone or email to begin the process. Phone: NW Clinic for Voice & Swallowing 503-494-5947. Email: Otolaryngology - ENT Clinic

-Neither mechanism alone is capable of producing swallowing with the regularity and immediacy which is necessary during the process of oral feeding Phase 3: Pharyngeal Phase of the Swallow. A number of physiological activities occur almost simultaneously as a result of pharyngeal triggering (sensory receptors triggering the pharyngeal swallow. Swallowing, or deglutition, is the process by which food passes from the mouth, through the pharynx and into the esophagus. As simple as it might seem to healthy people, swallowing is actually a very complex action that requires an extremely precise coordination with breathing since both of these processes share the same entrance: the pharynx

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2. Mechanism of swallowing (deglutition) The sequence events: a. Buccal stage (voluntary) b. Pharyngeal stage (involuntary) c. Oesophageal stage (peristalsis) 3. Buccal stage (voluntary) • The tongue retracts to force the bolus into the oropharynx by the contraction of mylohyoid muscle. 4 Swallowing, or deglutition, is a complex reflex mechanism by which food is pushed from the oral cavity into the esophagus and then pushed to the stomach.This movement of food from the oral cavity on to the esophagus and stomach by pushing is called propulsion, and it is an important part of the digestive process The swallowing mechanism can be divided into 4 phases: Oral preparatory phase; Oral Phase; Pharyngeal Phase; Esophageal Phase. Oral Phase. In the oral phase numerous difficulties can arise. Problems of weakness of the lips, tongue and cheeks due to stroke, or degenerative neurological conditions can cause problems keeping food in the mouth. Swallowing is initiated by sensory impulses transmitted as a result of stimulation of receptors on the fauces, tonsils, soft palate, base of the tongue, and posterior pharyngeal wall. Sensory impulses reach the brainstem primarily through the 7th, 9th, and 10 cranial nerves, while the efferent (motor) function is mediated through the 9th, 10th. Diagram of normal swallowing of a liquid bolus based on a videofluorographic recording. (A) The bolus is held between the anterior surface of the tongue and hard palate, in a swallow-ready position (end of oral-preparatory stage). The tongue presses against the palate in front of and behind the bolus to prevent spillage

Anatomy and Physiology of Feeding and Swallowing - Normal

Swallowing; One may think of swallowing as a very simple reflex once you have food inside your mouth. However, the actual process of swallowing begins much before any food is entered into the mouth. As the brain starts anticipating food, it activates the salivary glands. The salivary glands are present in the throat and the oral cavity Anatomy & Physiology Online. Digestive System. Only $125 per year. http://www.primalonlinelearning.com/digestive_system.aspx Swallowing is the process b.. the neural mechanism of swallowing (Figure 6). In practical terms, the oral phase constitutes the time during which lateral fluoroscopy shows a bolus that had been retained in the mouth by the tongue travels posteriorly until its leading edge passes through the faucial area. The pharyngeal phase Masticatory

It has been proposed that there is not a single mechanism whereby subglottic air pressure enhances swallowing velocity, but rather, that there is a combination of factors 8 It is possible that it is this complexity of how a trach tube may or may not affect swallowing that makes it difficult to obtain conclusive research findings Muscles Involved in Swallowing SpeechRamblings.weebly.com ! Innervated!by! Muscle! Function! Obicularis!oris*! Seallips/mouth% l! V% Trigeminal%(S)% % VII Swallowing, also called Deglutition, the act of passing food from the mouth, by way of the pharynx (or throat) and esophagus, to the stomach.Three stages are involved in swallowing food. The first begins in the mouth. There, food is mixed with saliva for lubrication and placed on the back of the tongue.The mouth closes, and the soft portion of the roof of the mouth (soft palate) rises so that.

Start studying Anatomy and Physiology of the Speech and Swallowing Mechanisms, Unit 4. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools The videofluorographic swallowing study (VFSS)* is the gold standard for evaluating the mechanism of swallowing.17, 18 For this study, the patient is seated comfortably and given foods mixed with.

What is swallowing? The intake of food (ingestion) involves two mechanical processes. First the food is chewed (mastication) and then it is swallowed (deglutition).Once food enters the pharynx, the other processes like motility, digestion and absorption is involuntary.. Swallowing is therefore the process of passing food from the mouth into the esophagus where it is transported to the stomach. Fig. 3.1 Illustration of three physiological models of swallowing : two-stage, four-stage, and process models A brief summary of the current understanding of these swallow stages and the differences among them is clearly outlined in the following text. Swallowing is traditionally divided into four stages: the oral preparatory, oral propulsive, pharyngeal, and esophageal stages

Act of Swallowing in Human Body (With Diagram) Digestive

Phases of swallowing: Oral preparatory phase: food is masticated (chewed), mixed with saliva, and then gathered into a softened mass (called a bolus) between the tongue and palate. Oral transit phase: the bolus is sent posteriorly toward the base of the tongue. This sending of the bolus is a volitional (technically conscious) action. Diagram of normal swallowing of a liquid bolus based on a videofluorographic recording. Deglutition process of swallowing. Adult Dysphagia Assessment Swallowing is the process by which food moves from the mouth to the stomach. Swallow anatomy diagram. It starts from the pharynx and extends to the upper end of the esophagus

Fig. 3.1 Illustration of three physiological models of swallowing : two-stage, four-stage, and process models A brief summary of the current understanding of these swallow stages and the differences among them is clearly outlined in the following text. Swallowing is traditionally divided into four stages: the oral preparatory, oral propulsive, pharyngeal, and esophageal stages Food leaves the mouth when the tongue and pharyngeal muscles propel it into the esophagus. This act of swallowing, the last voluntary act until defecation, is an example of propulsion, which refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract.It includes both the voluntary process of swallowing and the involuntary process of peristalsis Swallowing mechanism actions Food is mixed with saliva and VOLUNTARILY forced into the pharynx with the tongue. Sensory receptors in the pharynx sense food, which triggers swallowing reflexes. INVOLUNTARY peristalsis transports the food in the esophagus to the stomach Individuals with a variety of conditions can have alterations in the timing of the swallowing mechanism. These conditions include, but are not limited to, stroke, neuromuscular diseases, neurodegenerative disease (such as Parkinson's), brain injury, head and neck cancer and developmental disorders Postural strategies are used to help change the way bolus flows through the swallowing mechanism. Specific postures are used to compensate for particular types of dysphagia by changing the way that the food moves through the pharynx. It is a good idea to have the patient try using these postures during the VFFS/MBS; this way you can get an idea.

These can be printed by your clinician to allow them to customize your swallowing exercise routine. Free PDF of Exercises This information (instruction and videos), unless otherwise noted, have been provided to the NFOSD by the UC Davis Health System, Department of Otolaryngology and Nancy Swigert, CCC-SLP, BCS-S, F-ASHA and colleagues The Mechanism of Speech Process and the Different Organs of Speech. The organs, which take part in the production of speech sounds, are called speech organs. When we speak, air comes out through the lungs and it is interfered at various places for the production of sounds. Sounds cannot occur without air. The following diagram shows the main. Therefore, the process model of feeding was established to describe the mechanism of eating and swallowing solid food , . Oral-preparatory stage After liquid is taken into the mouth from a cup or through a straw, the liquid bolus is held in the anterior part of the floor of the mouth or on the tongue surface against the hard palate surrounded. The mechanism of posterior epiglottic tilting in human swallowing remains unclear, but is probably related to hyo-laryngeal elevation, pharyngeal constriction, bolus movement, and tongue base retraction . During swallowing, the hyoid bone and larynx are pulled upward and forward by contraction of the suprahyoid muscles and thyrohyoid muscle

Swallowing and Feeding. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are the primary providers for swallowing and feeding services. To contact an SLP, visit ASHA ProFind. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children. Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Adults. Swallowing Problems (Dysphagia) After Head and Neck Cancer Swallowing mechanism. Animation showing the process of swallowing (deglutition) in humans. Muscles in the tongue, pharynx and oesophagus are involved in this process, which is divided into three phases: the oral phase, pharyngeal phase and oesophageal phase. The oral phase starts when food (green) enters the mouth

The mechanisms possibly involved in pattern generation and the possible flexibility of the swallowing central pattern generator are discussed. REFERENCES 1 Altschuler SM, Bao X, Bieger D, Hopkins DA, Miselis RR Viscerotopic representation of the upper alimentary tract in the rat: sensory ganglia and nuclei of the solitary and spinal trigeminal. Understanding the swallowing process Swallowing is the process of moving food and liquids from the mouth to the stomach. We take it for granted because we do it so often and tend not to think about it. However, swallowing is a complicated process. A swallow consists of three phases: oral, pharyngeal, esophageal. See Diagram 1 Cancer of the head, neck or esophagus may cause swallowing problems. Sometimes specific cancer treatment can cause dysphagia. Injuries of the head, neck and chest Congenital abnormalities of the swallowing mechanism (e.g., cleft palate) Special Diets for Residents with Swallowing Problems Verify the correct die (1977), claim that in the human newborn, as in other mammals, this 'locking' mechanism ensures continuity of the larynx and nasopharynx, and swallowing causes only a momentary separation. Woolridge M, 1986. The 'anatomy' of infant feeding.

How Swallowing Works Animation Video - Stages of

The following article will provide you with a compact overview of the anatomy, functions and diseases of the esophagus & explains the physiology of the act of swallowing. Location of the esophagus , three constrictions , wall structure , closing mechanism , swallowing reflex . Read more here Whilst acute toxicities, including oedema, mucositis, pain, and altered/thickened salivary flow, impair the swallowing mechanism in the short-term [1-4], radiation-induced tissue fibrosis and chronic oxidative stress perpetuate impairment to the deglutition musculature long after treatment has been completed [5-7] Swallowing Mechanism and Neuromuscular Disorders Martin W. Donner, M.D. FUNCTIONAL disturbance of pharyngeal dlu- tition is seen in a wide variety of neuro- muscular disorders. Ranging from weakness in constriction to a complete loss of certain move- ments, the sequence of functional activity may be slightly impaired or completely disorganized

Swallowing anatomy poster | Speech language therapy

Swallow or deglutition syncope is an unusual type of neurally-mediated syncope associated with life-threatening bradyarrhythmia and hypotension. It is a difficult condition to diagnose with commonly delayed diagnosis and management. There is lack of review articles that elucidate the basic demographics, clinical characteristics and management of this rare condition Swallowing diagram process. tension and recruitment constantly being placed on the muscles meant for swallowing which can make it difficult for the swallowing mechanism to function normally. Esophageal Dysphagia and Its Causes. Surgery: For some disorders or swallowing problems,. HOME PROGRAM: Advanced Oral-Motor Exercises, Swallowing Version A Set time aside for oral -motor exercises each day. Take care to allow enough time to not rush through these exercises, but to perform them as accurately as described as possible. Ora-motor exercises involve fine-motor skills, so precision is important

Swallowing - Phases - Control - TeachMePhysiolog

  1. The mechanism of generation of the ventilatory pattern involves the integration of neural signals by respiratory control centers in the medulla and pons. Key Terms. altered breathing patterns: Abnormal breathing patterns that indicate typically indicate either too fast or too slow respiratory rate or too much or too little tidal volume
  2. Speaking and singing involve a voice mechanism that is composed of three subsystems. Each subsystem is composed of different parts of the body and has specific roles in voice production. Role in swallowing: Close glottis; Role in voice: Close glottis and adjust vocal fold tension (plus additional functions for singing) Key Components of the.
  3. Diagram of the swallowing central pattern generator (CPG). The CPG includes two main groups of neurons located within the medulla oblongata: a dorsal swallowing group (DSG) located within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) and the adjacent reticular formation and a ventral swallowing group (VSG) located in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM.
  4. Patient Education Video: Normal Swallow. Watch a sample 3D video that illustrates the normal swallowing process for foods and fluids. The video looks at the major structures used in the first step of swallowing: the lips, the tongue, the hard palate, and the soft palate. Explore Patient Education
  5. Speech & Swallowing Problems. People with Parkinson's (PD) may notice changes in or difficulty chewing, eating, speaking or swallowing. These changes can happen at any time, but tend to increase as PD progresses. Just as PD affects movement in other parts of the body, it also affects the muscles in the face, mouth and throat that are used in.
  6. Swallowing, or deglutition, is divided into three phases: . The buccal phase occurs voluntarily in the mouth when the tongue forces the bolus of food toward the pharynx.; The pharyngeal phase occurs involuntarily when food enters the pharynx, as follows: The soft palate and uvula fold upward and cover the nasopharynx to prevent the passage of food up and into the nasal cavity
  7. Terms in this set (39) INFANT SWALLOWING. • Anatomy and swallowing function vastly different for infants versus adults. In neonates/infants: • Limited muscular control to protect airway (muscle is the main anatomical feature for efficient swallow in adults) - Like adults, shared pathways between swallowing/feeding and respiratory systems
NON-INVASIVE MONITORING OF REFLEXIVE SWALLOWING

Swallowing Anatomy Diagram - Anatomy Drawing Diagra

Vomiting is the forceful expulsion of contents of the stomach and often, the proximal small intestine. It is a manifestation of a large number of conditions, many of which are not primary disorders of the gastrointestinal tract Discomfort while swallowing can also be caused when food goes down the esophagus like it's supposed to -- it's that feeling that something's caught in your throat, accompanied by an uncomfortable fullness in your upper chest or neck area, but you can still breathe. If you're violently coughing, though, that's a good indication that the food did. At the same time, the lateral pharyngeal walls (not shown in the diagram) move to close against the soft palate. This results in a sphincter-type closure. Velopharyngeal closure also occurs during swallowing, gagging, vomiting, sucking, blowing and whistling. FIGURE If a patient's swallowing problem is caused just by the UES, and the rest of his or her swallowing function is normal, then treating that muscle will almost always result in a return to normal swallowing and the resolution of difficulty swallowing food. If other aspects of his/her swallowing mechanism is abnormal, however, then the. The proximity of the windpipe to the food pipe seems risky. As such, if the mechanism of the epiglottis fails - which happens occasionally - swallowing food can be quite dangerous. This choking can even be fatal if the food ingested is large enough to block the passage of air

The 3 Phases of Swallowing Food - Verywell Healt

intensity changes or receptive field size of the dorsal horn neuron and limbic system modulation are the mechanisms involved in visceral hypersensitivity. Figure 5. Nerve cell communication in the wall of the colon. Figure 6. difficulty swallowing, or a sensation of a lump in the throat or closing of the throat (Figure 8) A videofluoroscopy assesses your swallowing ability. It takes place in the X-ray department and provides a moving image of your swallowing in real time. You'll be asked to swallow different types of food and drink of different consistencies, mixed with a non-toxic liquid called barium that shows up on X-rays Esophageal Varices. Esophageal varices are enlarged or swollen veins on the lining of the esophagus. Varices can be life-threatening if they break open and bleed. Treatment is aimed at preventing liver damage, preventing varices from bleeding, and controlling bleeding if it occurs. Appointments 216.444.7000 Biting Mechanism of Snakes. The skull and jaw bones in poisonous snakes are loosely and movable articulated, thus, allowing an enormous gape and swallowing whole of large prey. In cobras fangs are. small and remain permanently erect, but in vipers the fangs are large and curved and lie. against the root of mouth cavity when closed Dysphagia is a common consequence of disease and aging, is associated with complications in pneumonia, and has a particularly high mortality and morbidity in older adults. 1-5 The bedside water swallowing test is commonly used for clinical evaluation of swallowing function, but is not sensitive enough to detect small age-related alterations in.

These specialists may recommend X-rays of the swallowing mechanism, called a barium swallow or upper G-I, which is done by a radiologist. If special problems exist, a speech pathologist may consult with the radiologist regarding a modified barium swallow or videofluroscopy. These help to identify all four stages of the swallowing process Peristalsis is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation (which is expansion) of muscles that propagates in a wave down a tube, in an anterograde direction. Peristalsis is progression of coordinated contraction of involuntary circular muscles, which is preceded by a simultaneous contraction of the longitudinal muscle and relaxation of the circular muscle in the lining of the gut

Voice & Swallowing - Anatomy OHS

  1. 1. $2.00. PDF. The Speech Mechanism 1.2 worksheet can be used as a teaching tool to explain the role of each organ of the speech mechanism. There are prompts on this sheet that will allow the client to practice talking without the speech organ, in order to understand it's function. To assess prior knowledge, use
  2. Tongue thrust (also called reverse swallow or immature swallow) is a pseudo-pathological name of what is either considered a normal adaptive lip seal mechanism, whereby normal nasal breathing or normal swallowing can occur. Or, it is seen as an oral myofunctional disorder - a tongue muscle pattern that is perceived as clinically abnormal and in which the tongue protrudes anteriorly to seal.
  3. Causes of esophageal varices include: Severe liver scarring (cirrhosis). A number of liver diseases — including hepatitis infection, alcoholic liver disease, fatty liver disease and a bile duct disorder called primary biliary cirrhosis — can result in cirrhosis. Blood clot (thrombosis). A blood clot in the portal vein or in a vein that.
  4. Swallowing Mechanism. Swallowing is a process that occurs through a series of coordinated muscular contractions that move the bolus of food from the oral cavity through the esophagus and into the stomach Figure 8-7 Diagram showing the kinesiologic positions for the oral and pharyngeal musculature during the articulation of speech sounds
  5. Food leaves the mouth when the tongue and pharyngeal muscles propel it into the esophagus. This act of swallowing, the last voluntary act until defecation, is an example of propulsion, which refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract. It includes both the voluntary process of swallowing and the involuntary process of peristalsis
Impaired swallowing mechanics of post radiation therapy

The Normal Swallow Process - Amy Speech & Language Therapy

may have with swallowing. Swallowing problems can lead to aspiration. Aspiration describes a condition when food or fluids that should go into the stomach go into the lungs instead. Usually when this happens the person will cough in order to clear the food or fluid out of their lungs. However, sometimes the person does not cough at all The Speech Mechanism Speech is an overlaid function only bone in body not connected to other bones attached to muscles and ligaments involved in swallowing and phonation is a horse-shoe or U-shaped bone just above thyroid cartilage Anatomy of Larynx (con't) Vocal folds - mucous membranes that attach separately to the arytenoid.

Swallowing and Dysphagia (with pictures and video

  1. Information*Provided*by*SASwallowing*Services,*PLLC.,*2014* Yale%Swallow%Protocol% * Step%1:%Exclusion%Criteria% * ____YaleSwallow*Protocol*DeferredduetoNO*concern.
  2. Sword swallowing, on the other hand, requires deliberate relaxation of the upper GI tract. Here's what happens: The performer tips his head back, hyper-extending his neck, to align the mouth with the esophagus and straighten the pharynx. He consciously moves his tongue out of the way and relaxes his throat
  3. on November 07, 2019. Kevin Liu / Getty Images. The sucking reflex is probably one of the most important reflexes your newborn has. It is paired with the rooting reflex, in which a newborn searches for a food source. When he finds it, the sucking reflex allows him to suck and swallow the milk. Your baby does this without thinking about it.
  4. The brainstem (middle of brain) includes the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. Functions of this area include: movement of the eyes and mouth, relaying sensory messages (such as hot, pain, and loud), respirations, consciousness, cardiac function, involuntary muscle movements, sneezing, coughing, vomiting, and swallowing. Cerebellum
  5. Cricopharyngeal dysfunction: before myotomy (1 of 2) Lateral x-ray of the neck while swallowing barium (seen as a dark column). The non-relaxing cricopharyngeus muscle (light-grey bulge outlined by a dotted line) is causing narrowing of the upper esophageal passageway, as highlighted by the narrowed stream of dark barium at that point (arrow)
Alila Medical Media | Swallowing (baby) unlabeled

Diaphragmatic breathing technique. Lie on your back on a flat surface or in bed, with your knees bent and your head supported. You can use a pillow under your knees to support your legs. Place one hand on your upper chest and the other just below your rib cage. This will allow you to feel your diaphragm move as you breathe Mechanism of sequential swallowing during straw drinking in healthy young and older adults. Journal of Speech-Language and Hearing Research, 47 (1), 33-45. Groher, ME & Crary, MA Diagram (a), real, and fluoroscopic images (b, c) of the instrumental swallowing model to mimic the movement of the hyoid bone and the epiglottis using the slider-crank and the belt-pulley mechanism This diagram shows the long path of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve (left RLN). After it branches off the vagus nerve, the left RLN loops around the aortic arch in the chest cavity and then courses back into the neck.This long course makes it at higher risk for injury compared with the shorter course of the right RLN which does not run through the chest cavity The brainstem swallowing center, which contains the central pattern generator, is at the core of the system and represents the first level of control. Rostral to this and representing a second level of swallowing control are the subcortical structures, such as the basal ganglia, hypothalamus, amygdala, and tegmental area of the midbrain

Physiology of swallowing

Mechanism of swallowing - SlideShar

  1. The swallowing mechanism. Illustration about prent, biology, drawing, oesophagus, prevent, cricopharyngeal, palate, bolus, illustrator, ingestion, showing, mouth.
  2. B, Schematic diagram of the responses of bacteria or creating an opportunity for a secondary microbial infection of dependent lung usually prevented by this clearance mechanism. Swallowing of infectious organism-infected mucus may be a mechanism to clear certain bacteria;.
  3. During normal breathing, the airway is open and air passes freely through the nasal cavities (or oral cavity), pharynx, larynx, and trachea. The trachea or windpipe, is a rigid tube about 12 cm (4.5 in.) long and 2.5 cm (1 in.) in diameter, that lies in front of the esophagus (Figure 1 and 2). The trachea is supported by 16 to 20 C-shaped.
  4. ESOPHAGUS DIAGRAM. Image: Esophagus. THE MECHANISMS OF SWALLOWING Deglutition is the term given to the process of swallowing, a highly mechanical and functionally complex process that allows the initiation of digestion to occur. Deglutition is typically described in three basic phases, allowing for clarity
  5. Regulation of Saliva. 1.5 litres of saliva is produced by the human body every day, essential for carrying out a vital role in lubricating food, digestion, and protecting the oral environment. The production and composition of saliva is under neural control - via the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems
  6. The pyloric sphincter is a band of smooth muscle that plays an important role in moving the contents of your stomach into your small intestine. It also prevents partially digested food and stomach.
Tetanus | Oncohema KeyNCIS's Pauley Perrette Wants You to Know About the Dangers

Deglutition, or swallowing, is a complex process that involves the coordinated activity of several structures (tongue, soft palate, pharynx, and esophagus). Buccal phase of deglutition. The first phase, the voluntary buccal phase, occurs in the mouth; once the food has been chewed and well mixed with saliva, the bolus (food mass) is forced into. The presence of the structures for swallowing represents only a static or still picture and is wholly insufficient to explain the development of swallowing. It's like looking at the parts of a car without considering how they came together and by what mechanism are able to perform the function of locomotion Swallowing is accomplished by esophageal peristalsis, and in most birds appears to be aided by extension of the neck. Most but not all birds have a crop, which varies from a simple expansion of the esophagus to one or two esophageal pouches. Depending on the state of contraction of the stomach, food being swallowed is diverted into the crop. Swallowing difficulty is the inability to swallow foods or liquids with ease. People who have a hard time swallowing may choke on their food or liquid when trying to swallow